Publications

Biochemical Threats

2018

Title: Nanotechnology Applications for Biological Threat Detection

Authors: Schismenos, S., Chalaris, M., and Gazouli, M.

Book Title: Novel Approaches in Risk, Crisis and Disaster Management

Publisher: Nova Science Publishers

ISBN: 978-1-53613-239-7

Pages: 153-180

Abstract

Global history has proven that the humankind has suffered a lot from the aftermaths of biological and chemical warfare. Even nowadays, the use of biological and chemical agents remains terrifying as the research ethics lay between the beliefs of certain individuals and the safety of the public. Moreover, recent incidents show that such threats can be widely used as a mean of political and social pressure, fact that supports the need for more drastic solutions. Although a plethora of policies and strategies have been established worldwide to prevent or minimize the impact of biochemical weapons, the current mechanisms seem incapable of providing sufficient safeguard, especially against biological species. The biological threats include living organisms such as anthrax, while the chemical ones refer to their non-living toxic products, such as toxins. Over the last years, researchers and experts focus on the emerging technologies for detecting, identifying and preventing all kinds of bio-attacks. 

Nanoscience is certain to be one of the most potential responses against the rapid spread and the early detection of harmful agents. Numerous applications of nanotechnology enhance or even revolutionize many sectors that are related to multi-threat detection. The essential role of nanostructures in the fields of homeland security, healthcare and medicine, energy, environmental science, transportation, information technology or even food safety could possibly lead to the establishment of notable systems for detecting and eliminating biochemical attacks. This research investigates the efficiency of modern and traditional biological threat detectors based on nanotechnology applications and compares them to current conventional practices. Moreover, it presents a comprehensive review of the most common biological threats and their impacts in order to provide sufficient results for further study.