Biochemical Threats


Title: Battery hazards and safety: A scoping review for lead acid and silver-zinc batteries

Authors: Schismenos, S., Chalaris, M., and Stevens, G.

Journal: Safety Science

Publisher: Elsevier

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105290

Pages: 105290


Batteries play a critical role in our lives. However, depending on their chemical compositions and contents, they may turn into serious threats for both humans and the environment. Misuses and high temperatures during the operations may result in cell cracks and release hazardous liquids and gasses. In order to prevent fire ignition, strict safety regulations in battery manufacturing, storage and recycling facilities should be followed. This scoping review presents important safety, health and environmental information for lead acid and silver-zinc batteries. Our focus is on the relative safety data sheets and research studies. All findings are explained in a simple and clear manner. The goal of this paper is to identify risks and recommend solutions appropriately designed for increasing battery fire awareness.


Title: Nanotechnology Applications for Biological Threat Detection

Authors: Schismenos, S., Chalaris, M., and Gazouli, M.

Book Title: Novel Approaches in Risk, Crisis and Disaster Management

Publisher: Nova Science Publishers

ISBN: 978-1-53613-239-7

Pages: 153-180


Global history has proven that the humankind has suffered a lot from the aftermaths of biological and chemical warfare. Even nowadays, the use of biological and chemical agents remains terrifying as the research ethics lay between the beliefs of certain individuals and the safety of the public. Moreover, recent incidents show that such threats can be widely used as a mean of political and social pressure, fact that supports the need for more drastic solutions. Although a plethora of policies and strategies have been established worldwide to prevent or minimize the impact of biochemical weapons, the current mechanisms seem incapable of providing sufficient safeguard, especially against biological species. The biological threats include living organisms such as anthrax, while the chemical ones refer to their non-living toxic products, such as toxins. Over the last years, researchers and experts focus on the emerging technologies for detecting, identifying and preventing all kinds of bio-attacks. 

Nanoscience is certain to be one of the most potential responses against the rapid spread and the early detection of harmful agents. Numerous applications of nanotechnology enhance or even revolutionize many sectors that are related to multi-threat detection. The essential role of nanostructures in the fields of homeland security, healthcare and medicine, energy, environmental science, transportation, information technology or even food safety could possibly lead to the establishment of notable systems for detecting and eliminating biochemical attacks. This research investigates the efficiency of modern and traditional biological threat detectors based on nanotechnology applications and compares them to current conventional practices. Moreover, it presents a comprehensive review of the most common biological threats and their impacts in order to provide sufficient results for further study.